HUMAN/DOLPHIN COMPARISON Structure/function Human Dolphin ------------------ ------------------ ---------------------- Bodies Mammalian: head, Mammalian: neutral hands, arms, legs, buoyancy, swimming manipulatory, adaptations, head, walking, running flippers, flukes: in-air adapations: streamlined shape nonstreamlined shape Brains 900-1,800 grams: 1,000-6,000 grams: 1400 grams average; present size 25 present size 0.1 million years. million years. Predominatly Predominatly associational associational cerebral cortex. cerebral cortex. Locomotion Discontinuous, Free dive limit with sleep periods continuous process: interrupting; no moving to surface for movement for long every breath, swimming periods. Maximum 24 hrs/day whole life. velocity about 18 Average 5 knots:Max knots running. velocity about 30 knots. Sexuality Carefully Free expression: regulated: can take voluntary erection of place at any time. penis in males. Can Ritualized clothing, take place at any behaviour, male vs. time. Fertilization female. at time to give birth during warm season. Birth and Gestation 9 months. 12 months gestation. Reproduction Birth into air. Underwater birth. Respiration Always available air: Air must be sought automatic continuance at surface; must wake during unconsciousness, up for every breath; sleep, anesthesia. no automatic continuance in sleep, unconsciousness, anesthesia. Nutrition Plants, animals: Fish, shrimp, squid: predigestion by cooking. raw (no cooking) Circulation Upright position Horizontal, buoyancy adaptation: no rete adaptation rete mirabile mirabile for emergency brain functioning. Communication Outputs: 2 sources Outputs: adapted to with sequence control: underwater emission: Air-speech; written 3 sources independent materials control. Underwater Inputs: ears adapted sound communication; to air: azimuth and no written forms. elevation detection: Sound emission for scanning. ranging, recognition and orientation. Inputs: ears adapted to underwater azimuth and elevation: scanning. Evolution: Evolved from prehuman Evolved from forms over last predolphin forms last million years. 50 million years. Organization: Economic exploitation Total interspecies of ecology: financial interdependence; in records rule. ecological harmony. Ethics: Human-centered: no Dependence on others: other species directed. no aggressivity, no hostile attacks. Nonbrain, Outside Human reality None. Records: constructed in written records. Gonads: Male: external testes, Male: internal testes, external penis. internal penis. Female: internal Female: internal ovaries, interal ovaries, internal uterus. uterus. Mating: Male erection: Male erection: involuntary. voluntary. Female estrus: Female estrus: monthly monthly (?) Copulation: Copulation: voluntary, any time voluntary, any time Insemination: Insemination: depends on fertility depends on fertility cycle in female: cycle in female: sperm -} egg. sperm -} egg. Gestation: 9 months. 12 months. Intrauterine embryo, Intrauterine embryo, placentation. placentation. Embryo -} fetus -} Embryo -} fetus -} birth. birth. Birth and Uterine fetus -} Uterine fetus -} First Breath: baby in canal -} baby in canal -} air-gravity environment. seawater buoyant First breath in air environment. For first surrounding body. No breath must reach air need for immediate at seawater surface. mobility. Must swim within few minutes of emersion from canal. Brain and At birth 300 grams. At birth 600 grams. First Survival Automatic respiratory Automatic respiratory Programs: circuits operating circuits released at after first breath first breath. Control releasing them. No of respiratory acts locomotory circuits must be coordinated yet completely with surfacing of operative. Cries and blowhole in air. coos. Coordination of locomotion to surface with breathing: sensorimotor patterning developed within first 6 minutes. Whistles and harsh noises. Suckling: Mother places baby's Swimming baby has fat mouth on nipple, stores for initial elicits suckling nutritional needs. pattern ("releaser") Mother presents by lip stimulation. mammary-genital region to tip of baby's rostrum, elicits suckling pattern after first few hours. Infancy: Mother carries, Mother stays with, fondles, protects, protects, strokes, feeds, teaches baby swims with, teaches (human speech within baby dolphin- first 1.5-5 years). necessitites for first 2 years and longer. Speech: First words: 18 months Initial sounds: to 2 years. Cooing -} distress whistle for vowel sounds. Practice calling mother, of phons for first 18 "putts" for months. localization (release air from blowhole). At 9 months postpartum, control of clicking without air loss matures. Whistle control suddenly complex. Sonic Window: 20 to 15,000 Hz 100 to 150,000 Hz Communication 300 to 3,000 Hz 1,000 to 80,000 Hz Frequencies: Timing: 0.001 to 0.00001 sec 0.0001 to 0.000001 sec. Overlap limited. Electromagnetic 0.3 to 0.7 micrometres Unknown. Evidence of Radiation Window: definite overlap. Gravitation Adapted to (1+)g Adapted to near- Window: (bipedal locomotion) neutral buoyancy: Out of water respiration/heart action impeded Temperature 37 degrees C (98.6 F) 37 degrees C (98.6 F) Window: Brain: 32C - 44C (limits unknown) Skin: 5C - 50C (unknown)
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